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A hydrogen-run world: Europe PDF E-mail
Following are some of the most interesting European ideas and projects pertaining to the development of technologies for the use of hydrogen.
The list is not and cannot be exhaustive, but it’s offered as a first starting idea for visualising the state of the art of research on hydrogen in Europe.

The Hydrogen project for Arezzo
The Hydrogen project for Arezzo was established based on an initiative by the Fabbrica del Sole and with a broad partnership made-up by SAPIO, ARCOTRONICS, ENEA, Province of Arezzo, Township of Arezzo, Industrialists Association, Confartigianato, CNA, COINGAS and numerous other collaborations. The project is located in one of the area with the highest concentration of goldsmith companies in the Arezzo area (S. Zeno area) users of hydrogen. In its first phase, the project is articulated in 5 independently operating lots: centralised hydrogen storage, distribution network of hydrogen, gas detectors and meters, CHP co-generators inside companies served with hydrogen and demo laboratories.
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ENEA project on the production of hydrogen from solar source
Production of hydrogen obtained through thermo-chemical processes, by utilising as primary source high or very high temperature solar energy, represents a great valuable response in terms of energy resources available and environmental compatibility. Among the processes of thermo-chemically splitting water, which are at a more advanced stage of research in the ENEA laboratories, in addition to the one pertaining to mixed ferrites (interesting for the simplicity of the cycle), is to be highlighted the sulphur-iodine process.
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European Integrated Hyrdogen Project (EIHP)
One of the major goals of the project is the development of directives and regulations for certifying hydrogen fuelled vehicles. In details, the project aims at creating the bases for harmonising the European legislations. The task has been undertaken by the partners under close cooperation with the licensing and certifying authorities and is based on the following strategy: analysing current legislations on the use of hydrogen, referring to Europe, Japan and United States, analysing the problems of hydrogen vehicles and analysing the existing infrastructures in Europe, in addition to studies on the safety. The work is financed jointly by the partners and European Commission up to the maximum of 50%. The cost for the project is 2.5 Million Euro.
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Link to publications

Hyfleet-Clean Urban Transport for Europe (HyfleeCUTE Project)
The Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) is a project for the development and testing of 27 hydrogen fuelled Citaro buses, three each in nine European cities selected in the project. The main goal of the project is to prove the feasibility for the development of an urban public transportation system clean and high energy efficient. For the production and supply of hydrogen, various structures have been created in each of the cities involved in the initiative. The project has involved practical application of the renewable energies to the transport system. The development of public transportation systems similar to those studied by the project will contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions. Plus, the elimination of local emissions of NOx, SO2 and solid particulate will contribute also to improve health and life conditions in urban areas.
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HyLights Project
HyLights is a project (coordination action) financed by the EU in order to speed-up the marketing of hydrogen and fuel cells in the transport sector in Europe. The main goal of the project is thus to promote transition toward the use of hydrogen as the future vector for energy. HyLights is a consortium made-up by companies active in the automotive sector, energy and gas industries, research institutes and various associated partners.
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Link to documentation

Zero Regio Project
The research project (Integrated Project), financed and completed as part of the 6th Framework Programme of the EU, consisted in the construction of infrastructures for the supply of hydrogen fuel cells powered automobiles. The project aimed at developing and prove the feasibility of zero emissions surface transportation systems inside cities. Coordination of the project was assigned to Infraserv GmbH & Co KG Höchst and the consortium included 16 partners from four member states. The project started in 2004 and ended in 2009.
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Link to documentation

HyChain Min-Trans Project
The Hychain Mini-Trans is an integrated project financed through the 6th Framework Programme by the European Union. It stands as one of the major projects in the transport sector by the European Commission and Energy Division, given that it was the first big demonstration of such dimension to be implemented. The project had the duration of 5 years and Air Liquide has performed the role of coordinator, with a network of 24 European partners. The main goal of the project was to allow citizens of four regions within the European Community of testing a group of small size vehicles for urban transport, including small vehicles, minibuses, wheelchairs, scooters and cargo-bikes all powered by hydrogen fuel cells. This project has investigated and proven also the possibility of utilising new solutions for the logistic distribution of hydrogen based mainly on the use of over 200 reusable pressurised 2-20 litres sizes canisters.
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The Roads2HyCom Project
The Roads2HyCom project is a partnership of 29 organisations sustained by the European Commission as part of the 6th Framework Programme. The project has investigated the technical and social-economic problems tied to the use of hydrogen fuel cells in an outlook of a sustainable energy economy, through the combination of studies from experts in various sectors (technologic, energy procurement, social-economic, etc.).
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Link to documentation

Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Application (StorHy Project)
StorHy (Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Application) is an integrated project part of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union coordinated by Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co. KG. The R&D activities provided by the project cover the entire spectrum of the hydrogen storing technologies (compressed gases, cryogenic liquid and solid materials), with a special attention on the automotive sector, given that the latter is a matter of maximum importance for the future of the European industry in the sector. The StorHy consortium included: European and industrial automobile manufactures, leading European hydrogen suppliers, Research Institutes and Universities and, lastly, European Bodies for standardisation and certification.
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Link to publications

NaturalHy Project
NaturalHy is an integrated project financed by the European Commission through the 6th Framework Programme (2002-2006) for the technical development and demonstration. NaturalHy objectives pertain to the identification of critical components for adding significant quantities of hydrogen to the existing distribution networks of natural gas. This approach will promote the transition toward an economy entirely based on hydrogen, even by combining with the existing distribution networks the technologies of separation and final use of hydrogen in the stationary applications and distributed production: Finally, the project identifies and removes potential obstacles inhibiting the development of hydrogen as energy vector, by utilising natural gas as “catalyser” for the change.
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Hypogen-Dynamis Project
Hypogen-Dynamis is an integrated project co-financed by the EU as part of the 6th Framework Programme and coordinated by SINTEF. Notwithstanding their disadvantage within the context of the climate change question, fossil fuel will remain however the prevailing energy source for Europe for the near future. In order for Europe to achieve the objectives of the Kyoto protocol is necessary to develop new low emission technologies, among which the decarbonisation of fossil fuels and use of hydrogen as energy vector. In this outlook, it becomes mandatory to isolate emissions of CO2, with consequent safe storing for thousands of years and at reasonable costs. The goal of the project is to study new, efficient, and profitable systems on a large scale for the co-production of hydrogen and electricity starting with fossil fuels, with systems of capture and restrain of the CO2 produced.
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Link to documentation

Novel Nanocomposites for Hydrogen Storage Applications (NANOHY Project)
The NANOHy project, financed by EU as part of the 7th Framework Programme, aims at combining the latest developments in the field of metal hydrides with new concepts of treatment of materials for the adaptation of the solid properties in order to meet the international objectives set for the terms for storing hydrogen. The various authorities in the field of formulation of complex hydrides, in the synthesis and functionalization of the nanostructured carbon, in the coating of nanoparticles, in the structural and computational characterisation, will be joined in order to achieve significant and tangible progresses in the development of new nanostrcutured materials for storing hydrogen. The coordinator for the project is the Karlsruher Institut and cost of the project is 2.4 Million Euro.
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Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures (WELTEMP Project)
The WELTEMP project, financed by the European Union is a project of cooperation part of the 7th Framework Programme. The project involves partners from five European Countries ( Denmark, Norway, Czech Republic, Switzerland and Italy), and conducted during the period 1.1. 2008 -12.31.2010. The task of the WELTEMP consortium is to develop a more efficient electrolytic technology for the water for the production of hydrogen at contained costs. The coordinator of the project is the Danmarks Tekniske Univesitet, at a cost of 2.3 Million Euro.
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Understanding of degradation mechanisms to improve components and design of PEFC (DECODE Project)
Understanding the degradation mechanisms to improve components and design of PEFC (DECODE Project) Decode is a project financed by EU as part of the 7th Framework Programme. The main goal of the project is to extend the life expectancy of the fuel cells for automotive applications. Thus the work will aim at clarifying the basic mechanisms of degradation of the PEFC under stationary and start-up/shut-down conditions. Understanding such mechanisms will serve to improve the useful life of the PEFC.
Link to the project

Nanostructured Photoelectrodes for Energy Conversion (NANOPEC Project)
It is a collaborative project financed by the EU as part of the 7th Framework Programme. The project tries to meet the challenge of identifying materials for capturing photons and their conversion in chemical and/or thermal energy. In details, the project studies the production of hydrogen with solar energy through the photo-electrochemical splitting of water within appropriate materials. Even if the concept is extremely interesting as method for the production of environmentally compatible fuels, to date not any material has been developed with acceptable performances, sufficient stability and cost effective, in spite of decades of scientific researches on the matter. In order to face this important challenge, the NANOPEC project will develop new concepts and methods offered by the nanotechnology and by the new design of composite nanostructures, in which every component of the chain performs special functions.
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Innovative Dual Membrane Fuel Cell (IDEAL-CELL Project)
The IDEAL-Cell project suggests the development of a new and competitive concept of high temperature fuel cells operating inside the range between 600-700° C, based on the integration of a PCFC anode and a SOFC cathode. The protons generated by the anode migrate toward a central membrane to meet the oxygen ions created at the cathode, to form water, which is then extracted through a network of porosities interconnected to the system. IDEAL Cell is a project of cooperation financed by the 7th Framework Programme by the European Commission.
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European Solar-Fuel Initiative-Renewable Hydrogen from Sun and Water; Science Linking Molecular Biomimetics and Genetics (SOLARH2 Project)
SOLAR-H2 groups 12 leading laboratories in Europe to conduct an integrated and multidisciplinary project, for the base researches aimed at developing new ways for the production of H2 from the most abundant resources in nature: water and sun. To achieve its objectives the project integrates multidisciplinary skills, extending from molecular biology to biotechnology, biochemistry, biophysics, chemistry and lastly to physics. In details, the project integrates two first line subjects of research: artificial photosynthesis in bio-mimetic systems and production of photo-biologic H2 in living organisms. The project is financed as part of the 7th Framework Programme and the coordinator is the University of Uppsala.
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Carbon Dioxide Capture and Hydrogen Production with Membranes (CACHET II Project)
CACHET is an integrated project of research lasting 3 years, financed by the European Commission as part of the 7th Framework Programme, which aims at developing technologies for reducing by 90% the emissions of greenhouse gases from electricity generating plants. CACHET is a strong international consortium with diversified and complementary skills. The consortium if made-up by institutes of research with great experience, universities, companies operating in the field of energy, engineering and companies producing electricity. CACHET II is coordinated by BP. The overall objective of the project is to develop new technologies for the production of hydrogen from natural gas and halve the cost. The hydrogen produced can be used to supply energy with water being the sole by-product.
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Development of Next Generation Metal Based SOFC Stack Technology (METSOFC Project)
The goal of the METSOFC project, financed through the 7th Framework Programme of the EU, is to develop the next generation solid oxide fuel cells. The partners in the project will develop and test new materials for the development of new stacks capable of generating 1 kWe. The project consists of a vertically integrated group of partners with interdisciplinary expertise, from the development of new materials, to the science of electrochemistry and processing and manufacturing of new components.
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Innovative Solid Oxide Electrolyser Stacks for Efficient and Reliable Hydrogen Production (RELHY Project)
RelHy is an interdisciplinary project financed by the European Commission as part of the 7th Framework Programme, with end-purposes the development of new and improved low cost materials, with related associated production process, for their integration in the next generation of solid oxides electrolysis cells (SOEC). In particular, the project aims at optimising and developing new electrolysis cells, improved as far as it pertains to the interconnection and sealing of materials, as well as development of new designs for the SOEC in order to increase their life.
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Smart Membrane for Hydrogen Energy Conversion: all Fuel Cell Functionalities in One Material (SMALLINONE)
A step forward on the technology of the proton exchange membrane fuel (PEMFC) requires a radical improvement in the performance of their key components (catalysers and proton membranes), as well as highly innovative solutions for overcoming the assembling of the membrane and limitations of interaction between the various components. Currently the PEM fuel cells have membrane assembled electrodes (MEA) However, the performances of the MEA architecture are limited by the interface effect between catalytic layer and membrane. The project's scientific and technological objectives suggest of overcoming these limitations through the development of new materials, by processing a new concept of proton exchange membrane . The consortium consists of 7 partners from 5 European countries, among which 2 SME, for an overall cost of 1.82 Million Euro.
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Materials and Components for Hydrogen Production by Sulphur Based Thermochemical Cycles (HyCycleS Project)
The HyCycleS project aims at the qualification and enhancement of components for thermo-chemical water splitting cycles for the production of hydrogen, through a solar or nuclear based thermal source. The project focuses on the study of sulphuric acid break-down, which stands as the central phase of the group of thermo-chemical processes based on sulphur, especially the sulphur hybrid cycle and sulphur-iodine cycle. The attention is placed on its materials and components for the evaporation of the sulphuric acid, break-down and separation of the sulphur dioxide. The project ultimate goal is to take the thermo-chemical splitting of the water close to a possible practical accomplishment, improving efficiency, stability and reducing the costs of key components through the processing of new technical solutions.
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UE - European Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Projects 2002-2006
This publication is a compilation of demo projects of research, technological development and other actions of support to the hydrogen fuel cell project. The projects include those pertaining to the area of sustainable development, global changes and ecosystems part of the 6th EU framework programme of research (2002-2006), as well as other areas and projects programmes. Plus, the booklet includes the direct actions pertaining fuel cells and hydrogen undertaken by the joint centre of research of the European Commission.
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Nanostructured Electrolyte Membranes Based on Polymer-ionic Liquids-Zeolites Composite for High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell (ZeoCell Project)
ZeoCell is a project aimed at developing nanostructured electrolytic membrane by utilising a new multifunctional composite material obtained from the synergetic combination of zeolites, liquid ionic and polymers. This new membrane will be able to operate in PEMFCs at temperatures ranging between 130 and 200°C with the following features:
- High ionic conductivity: ≥ 100 mS / cm at 150º C.
- Suitable for operating at temperatures ranging between 130-200° C).
- Good chemical, mechanical and thermal stability up to 200º C.
- High average life
- Low production costs.
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Efficient and Robust Fuel Cell with Novel Ceramic Proton Conductiong Electrolyte (EFFIPRO Project)
EFFIPRO is a project financed as part of the 7th Framework Programme by the EU, which will develop electrolytes and electrodes for the proton conductive fuel cells (PCFCs), obtained starting from new LaNbO4 material . Unlike the other candidates normally utilised in FC, these materials are chemically stable and mechanically strong. However, the proton conductivity of the materials obtained from LaNbO4 are still insufficient and thus the project aims at improving the values through strategies of doping and interface engineering, thus developing technologies for thin film electrolytes on suitable sub-layers.
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EU - The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform
The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP) facilitates and accelerates the development of cost competitive energy systems based on hydrogen, on fuel cells and components technology for the use in transport, and stationary and portable power supply.
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EU - Introducing Hydrogen as an energy carrier
The purpose of this publication is to inform the European Community about the current initiatives part of the current European framework of research, verifying that the safety problems and regulators input for the approval of projects on hydrogen have utilised proper technological systems and have been strictly examined and, in addition, that the basic social editions pertaining to the public perception of hydrogen as fuel are examined attentively.
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ENEA zero emissions of hydrogen combustion and energy cycles
The project aims mainly at studying and developing new processes for the combustion of hydrogen for generating energy from combined cycles in turbo gas plants.
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UK - London Fuel cell buses
Internet site pertaining to the introduction of three test buses operating with fuel cells motors on the RV1 line between Covent Garden and Tower Gateway in London. The initial project provided for ending the test in 2005, but thanks to the good performances and reliability of the buses, the test has been extended for another year, with the vehicles taken out of operation at the conclusion of the test in January 2007.
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UK - World Energy Technology Outlook
Content: the report on the status of the world energy technologies (World Energy Technology Outlook report: WETO-H2) supplies a comprehensive picture for analysing the pressures and limitations on the global energy as of 2050, the energy development and CO2 emissions. Chapter 4 contains interesting information on hydrogen economy, with future scenarios either for European as well as for the rest of the world.
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